The building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings.The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, plumbing, roofing, and insulation work. This reference deals with habitats and structures including homes.
1.Concrete & Cement
Concrete has been the predominant building material in this modern age due to its longevity, formability, and ease of transport.For a concrete construction of any size, as concrete has a rather low tensile strength, it is generally strengthened using steel rods or bars (known as rebars). This strengthened concrete is then referred to as reinforced concrete
2.Brick & Block
Bricks were widely used as a building material in 1700, 1800 and 1900s. This was probably due to the fact that it was much more flame retardant than wood in the ever-crowding cities, and fairly cheap to produce.Another type of block replaced clay bricks in the late 20th century. It was the Cinderblock. Made mostly of concrete.
3.Metal & Steel
Metal is used as the structural framework for larger buildings such as skyscrapers, or as an external surface covering.Metal figures quite prominently in prefabricated structures such as the Quonset hut and can be seen used in most cosmopolitan cities. It requires a great deal of human labor to produce metal, especially in the large amounts needed for the building industries.
4.Mud & clay
Soil and especially clay is good thermal mass; it is very good at keeping temperatures at a constant level. Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool in the summer heat and warm in cold weather. Clay holds heat or cold, releasing it over a period of time like a stone.
Rock structures have existed for as long as history can recall. It is the longest-lasting building material available and is usually readily available. There are many types of rock throughout the world all with different attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses.
Wood is a product of trees, and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for construction purposes when cutting or pressed into lumber and timber, such as boards, planks, and similar materials. It is a generic building material and is used in the building just about any type of structure in most climates.Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and is incredibly strong when compressed vertically.
Article SOURCE: theconstructor.org